A crown looks like a natural tooth because of its shape and colour. This treatment is made form ceramic, which protects you tooth and keeps the aesthetic and strenght of a natural tooth.
We consider this treatment when the tooth is damaged and a filling is impossible considering its dimension and that would increase the risk of a potential fracture. It is also highly recommended when the tooth has had a root canal treatment. The crown can also allow us to change the position, shape or colour of a tooth.
For a crown, there’s two differents options. The first one is a CEREC crown made with an apparel on place directly. The second one need to anticipate two appointments. At the first appointment, the dentist will prepare your tooth for the crown and he then takes a print. This print will allow the manufacturing of your crown in a laboratory. Then, the dentist will put a temporary crown on your tooth. At your second visit, the temporary crown is taken off and the ceramic one is cemented on your tooth.
A crown is more expensive than a filling, but it is a more long-term sustainable option. If you want to talk about your options with our team, it will be our pleasure to offer you a diversity in your treatment plan.
Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums and it’s reversible. It is caused by the presence of plaque and tartar. Good dental hygiene habits and regular follow-ups with your dental hygienist are the best ways to treat and prevent gingivitis.
Periodontitis, on the other hand, is a chronic, often asymptomatic disease, that destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth. Some signs may be observed, such as bleeding, swelling, bad breath, gingival recession and/or dental migrations. If left untreated, periodontitis can cause tooth loss in the long term.
During the examination, a ruler-like instrument will be used to assess the level of bone destruction. The measurement obtained indicates the depth of the periodontal pocket. This is where plaque, calculus and bacteria accumulate causing periodontal disease. X-rays are also used to diagnose periodontitis because they allow us to see the degree of bone loss.
Once the diagnosis is made, a treatment will be suggested. The latter consists in eliminating plaque and calculus present under local anesthesia. Particular attention will be paid to the oral hygiene of patients to help them maintain a good stability of their condition.
Periodontal treatments can usually stop the progression of the disease and reduce the depth of the periodontal pockets. Optimal dental hygiene and very regular follow-up, usually every 3 months, will be recommended to measure the improvement obtained and maintain it.
Depending on the degree of bone loss, it is important to know that a surgical phase may be necessary. A reference with a periodontist may also be considered.
Invisalign technology treats orthodontic problems without having to use conventional metallic brackets. It uses transparent aligners custom-made thanks to a tridimensional technology. The movement of your teeth is done gradually according to a custom-made plan for your dentition.
Invisalign is an aesthetic treatment that does not disrupt your day-to-day life. It offers many advantages compared to metallic brackets, such as:
Teeth whitening, or Bleaching, is a treatment that brightens the color of the teeth to give the patient a bright, younger-looking smile.
But before starting this treatment, it is important to discuss with our team.
Indeed, it is necessary to establish, beforehand, if there is presence of cavities and/or defective fillings and to carry out the appropriate treatments. Then we will clean your teeth to remove deposits and surface stains for optimal results.
It is important to know that bleaching will have no effect on restorations, bridges, crowns and/or facets present on the teeth. If they are in the aesthetic area of the smile, they will probably need to be replaced after bleaching to match the new shade of your teeth.
Results may vary from one patient to another, but in most cases an improvement of two to three shades should be noted.
Regarding the various whitening treatments, the Centre dentaire Stéphanie Wilson offers you two possibilities: home or chair whitening.
Home Whitening is made using plastic trays perfectly adapted to your teeth and gums, following prints taken at the clinic, in which you apply a bleaching peroxide-based gel. You will have to wear them every day, for a fixed period, for a few hours a day. An explication sheet will be given to guide you throughout the treatment.
Chair Whitening is a treatment done at our clinic. It is made using a bleaching gel with a higher concentration of peroxide than the one for the home whitening and it allows to obtain faster results. This treatment is perfect for busy patients.
Whitening treatments are safe and do not damage your teeth if they are done by dental professionals who follow the established directions for use.
The Centre dentaire Stéphanie Wilson will be happy to answer all your questions about whitening treatments.
A fixed bridge is a dental treatment to replace one or more missing teeth. It is usually formed of an artificial tooth fixed between two crowns. It is permanently placed on the teeth adjacent to the toothless space.
The main advantages to the fixed bridge are:
A dental implant is simply an artificial root composed of titanium or a titanium alloy that, once integrated into the bone, allows the installation of a crown, a bridge or a prosthesis (fixed or removable), depending on the number of missing teeth. It’s the ideal solution to replace a missing tooth.
There are many advantages to an implant:
Root canal treatment or endodontic treatment may be necessary for several reasons:
The number one priority for a dentist is to consider every solution possible to keep the patients teeth. However, it is possible in certain cases, that the extraction is proposed by the dentist.
Here are certain reasons that may lead to an extraction of one or more teeth.
In fact, when a tooth is no longer treatable with a conventional method because of an extensive cavity, the dentist may propose the extraction of the tooth.
An important bone loss caused by a periodontal disease may provoke the extraction of one or more teeth. In fact, this happens when there is not enough bone left to support the tooth.
Lack of space
It may be necessary to extract one or more teeth to help correct a lack of space. This recommendation is usually made during an orthodontic treatment. Also, the lack of space may force the dentist to propose the extraction of wisdom teeth if by keeping them it puts the patient’s health at risk.
In any case, Dre Wilson and her team will always evaluate the possibility of keeping your tooth and will provide you advice and information appropriate to your situation.
Sleep apnea syndrome is a breathing problem caused by the closure of the airways during sleep which blocks the air to the lungs. It is caused by the loosening of the muscles of the tongue and throat. These closures may bring respiratory stops that usually lasts from 10 to 30 seconds. These pauses repeat themselves many times during the night causing the level of oxygen in the blood to drop.
Sleep apnea should not be taken lightly. In fact, this condition may generate many health problems and greatly diminish the quality of life of the people who suffer from it.
The most common signs are : snoring, respiratory stops during the night, drowsiness during the day, nightly sweats, concentration and memory problems, irritability and a change in mood. There are many negatives effects on the quality’s life of the patient. We note, especially, a loss in productivity, depression, a higher risk of heart attack and stroke and hypertension. Work and road accidents and a premature death are some of the more drastic consequences of sleep apnea.
In order to establish the diagnosis, we will guide you to a sleep apnea clinic to get evaluate, with the help of a polysomnography test, your sleeping habits.
Different treatments exist to treat sleep apnea. The CPAP is the most common and the more efficent. This device sends a continuous stream of air, through a mask, in the nostrils to help maintain a pressure to keep airways open. It can be used to treat all the forms of apnea.
Certain surgeries may be considered to treat light sleep apnea. Indeed, the uvula and a part of the soft palate ablation is a technique commonly used. It can be performed under local anesthesia with a laser. However, the efficiency of this treatment is only of 25% and lets not forget the risks associated with a surgery.
Oral appliances are also used for treating light to severe sleep apnea. The consist of an orthosis is to bring the jaw forward and keep the tongue down, alowing the opening of the airways. Since this appliance is custom made, it will be comfortable. This appliance can be made from prints taken at our offices. Do not hesitate to ask questions on this alternative, it will be our pleasure to give you all the information necessary.
Brush your teeth at least twice a day (morning and evening), but ideally after each meal.
Use a toothpaste that contains fluoride to prevent cavities apparition’s and reduce dental hypersensitivity in some people.
Flossing every day before the last brushing to eliminate plaque and bacteria that accumulate between the teeth. If it concern you, use the interdental brushes recommanded by your dental hygienist.
You can use a mouthrinse to complete your oral health routine or simply to refresh your breath.
Pros tips : if you do not have the chance to brush your teeth after your meal, you can finish it by eating a piece of cheese to come balance the Ph of your saliva and rinse your mouth with water to eliminate some debris on your teeth. However, this will not replace brushing.
If you feel pain on a tooth, apply toothpaste with a higher fluoride concentration or specialized for the remineralization on her and let it act without rinse. This should help to reduce the sensitivity you feel. Don’t forget to consult your dentist nevertheless. A sensitivity can be a symptom for another problems.
Did you know that ideally we should change our toothbrush each three months? And did you know that we should change it after a period of virus because the bacteria will stay in the toothbrush?
By following all these tips, you should have an optimal oral health. However, all this doesn’t replace a visit to your dentist.
FOR YOU, OUR PATIENTS
The following text is to let you know our policies and procedures for appointments you take with our team. This text is indicative and will guide you when confirming/cancelling your appointments. Please read closely and sign to the bottom line when you’ll be done.
CONFIRMATION/CANCELLATION OF AN APPOINTMENT
We are a team and each of us has is role to do for your appointment. Whether it’s the secretary who fill the schedule effectively, the dental hygienist who reviews your file and prepare her day according to your needs, the dental assistant who install the instruments needed for each treatment in the room or even the dentist who reads every file to manage the day at her best, when you cancel your appointment, it’s all the team that you penalized. On our side, we commit ourselves to confirm your appointment in a period of 48h before the appointment. We also expect that, on your side, you call us 48h minimum before your appointment if you need to cancel it. We receive a lot of emergency calls from patients who want to see us soon. By taking an appointment with us, it means that you have a certain time allowed in our schedule. This time is precious and is reserved for you only. Any absence or missed appointment within notice 48h before, could be subject to a 30$ absence fee. We will let you know during our phone discussion.
The treatments that you receive at our clinic have to be paid the same day. We accept the following payment methods: Cash, Debit, Visa and Mastercard. We also offer ACCORD D service for payment with a bigger amount. It will be a pleasure to give you more information’s about this payment method.
Alloderm graft (gingival graft) may be needed where there are gingival recessions. This last of gingiva exposes the root which, esthetically, makes the tooth look longer. The root becomes more susceptible to cavity and this problem can cause sensitivity to cold.
The goal of the Alloderm graft is to prevent the progression of gingival recession by placing a strip of healthy tissue on the root. Thereby, it could enhancing the esthetic by reducing the expose of the root and reducing the sensitivity to cold.
This technique is done in one appointment, because it does not necessitate a palate tissue removal since the graft comes from a human donor. The membrane is treated to become inert until placed on the recipient. Since it is free of cells, those of the recipient will feed the graft when it will be placed. This procedure allows the membrane to slide between the tooth and the gingiva and allow an unmarked healing. It is almost impossible to notice a graft once the healing is done.
If certain symptoms concern you, it is important to talk about the situation with our team to assess the problem and find the appropriate solution.
This appliance, made of acrylic, is suggested to patients with dental wear caused by bruxism (grinding) and clenching of teeth. We evaluate this problem during the dental examination by touching and by the noise of the jaw and by direct signs for the wear of the teeth.
During clenching and grinding of the teeth, muscular tension may appear causing symptoms of headache, pain in the articulation and facial muscles. In more severe cases, we may note the appearance of neck pain, ear congestion, cracks in the jaw or a limitation when opening the mouth.
The occlusal plate attaches to the upper or lower teeth and prevents the teeth from coming into contact with each other. This helps to relax the muscles of your jaw and protect your teeth against premature wear. The occlusal plate is particularly proposed for night wear, but in certain cases she can be recommended at any other time in the day.
The mouthpiece is recommended for patients practicing contact sports or with possible falls. It is made in a laboratory according to a print of your dentition.
This device covers the teeth to protect them from impacts. It also limits the risk of injury to the lips, tongue, cheeks and jaws. Some studies even suggest that the mouthpiece could also reduce the risk of concussions.
When we think of the mouthpiece, the first sports that come to mind are hockey and football. But did you know that martial arts, as well as basketball, volleyball, water polo, cheerleading and all extreme sports (skateboarding, mountain biking, skiing ...) carry risks for oral trauma. If you think you practice a sport that would require a mouthpiece do not hesitate to let us know. It will be our pleasure to guide you for an adequate protection
Veneers (or facets) are a treatment used to improve the aesthetics of the smile. It is a shell made from composite resins or ceramic.
They can be used to: Close space between two teeth Correct a slight overlap/crowding Change the shape and color of one tooth or more.
Composite Veneer: To perform this treatment, the dentist must remove a thin layer of enamel from the visible surface of your tooth. Afterwards, a composite material, with the color as the adjacent teeth, is applied by thin layer on your tooth.
Advantages: They, usually, necessitate only one appointment. This procedure is cheaper than ceramic veneers
Disadvantages: Shorter life span They stain and lose their shine more easily
As with composite veneers, the dentist must remove a thin layer of enamel from the visible surface of your tooth. Once this step is completed, the dentist must take an impression of your tooth. The dentist then installs a temporary veneer to protect the surface of the tooth and maintain the aesthetics of the smile. During a second appointment, the dentist removes the temporary veneer and places the ceramic veneer with a permanent cement.
Advantages: Shine resembling a natural tooth More resistant Longer life span Does not stain and doesn’t change colour
Disadvantages: Pricier Necessitate two appointments
The procedure has certain limitations. It is therefore, important to consult your dentist to discuss with him and his team your situation. He can help you identify the best option for you.
Wisdom teeth are named like this because they are the last ones to erupt between the age of 17 and 21 years old.
It is recommended to check the progression of wisdom teeth towards the age of 15 or 16 years old. This exam allows, with the help of a panoramic x-ray, to verify the orientation of the teeth. At this age, the roots are not fully formed which allows an easier extraction, if necessary.
It is important to evaluate the growth of wisdom teeth. They are often a source of problem, such as infections or cysts. If a tooth is growing towards the roots of adjacent teeth, it may cause and abscess, may deteriorate the neighboring tooth that can cause its loss, all that while staying under the bone.
If a wisdom tooth successfully pierces the gum but it doesn’t fully erupt because of its position, it becomes a problem. In fact, a semi erupted tooth stays partly covered by the gum. This allows the accumulation of food and plaque that promotes the formation of cavities and infection.
After evaluating the wisdom teeth, the dentist will decide if he will proceed with the surgery or refer you to a maxillofacial surgeon. A maxillofacial surgeon is someone who, after his doctorate in dental medicine, completed a 4-year specialty which makes him the perfect person to intervene in more complicated cases (position of wisdom teeth, proximity to the inferior nerve, shape of the roots)
The complete prosthesis, more commonly known as denture, is used to replace all the teeth of the same arch. It covers most of the gums and, if it is on the upper maxillary, the palate. It remains in place thanks to the suction caused by the infiltration of the saliva between the prosthesis and the gum. It is made from acrylic but can be reinforced with a metal alloy.
For its part, the partial prosthesis replaces one or more teeth. It is supported by the gingiva and the teeth adjacent, to the space to be fill, using hooks. It is thanks to these supports that the partial prosthesis is more stable than the complete prosthesis. It consists of an alloy of metals and acrylic.
Prostheses, like all treatments, have advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages: Low cost No surgical procedures Reversible treatment, under certain conditions Can be taken off and put back on easily
Disadvantages: Lack of stability The hooks of the partial denture can damage the adjacent teeth Must be changed regularly (every 5 years) due to changes in gums and bone Covers the palate (upper complete prosthesis) which can change eating habits Gum pain Premature aging of the face Difficulty chewing which can lead to digestive problems
If you suffer from many of the disadvantages mentioned, it may be interesting for you to think about implants that can serve as anchors to the prosthesis. This alternative helps keep the bone of the jaw stable and the gums healthy. Chewing and the strength of the prostheses are greatly improved.
Do not hesitate to talk about your situation with our team. We will be happy to evaluate your condition and present you the different options available to you.
When we lose one tooth or more, it modifies our chewing, which unbalances your teeth.
Indeed, the neighboring teeth will tend to want to occupy the toothless area. Adjacent teeth will attempt to migrate (tilt) to the space. Due this movement, the contact between the teeth can open and promote the accumulation of food. This can lead to cavities, gingival recessions and plaque. The recurrent presence of debris and bacteria increases the risk of periodontal disease.
The tooth located on the opposite jaw to the edentulous zone which, having no more support, will tend to extrude (descend) into the space. This phenomenon could lead to gingival recessions, root caries, mobility and periodontal diseases.
The loss of one tooth or more also causes difficulties in mastication. Problems in the jaw joint could be occur because people will tend to use only the side giving them a larger masticatory surface. At this point, the appearance of cracking, pain and snapping at the joint is common.
Changes in the smile, premature aging of the face and difficulties in digestion can also be noted following the loss of teeth.
Several replacement options are available to you such as implant, bridge, prosthesis, etc.…
The team at Centre Dentaire Stéphanie Wilson will be happy to help you determine your teeth replacement needs.
What is the CEREC technology? It’s actually a restoration made from ceramic and built up by a robotic device. What makes it special, it’s with this 3D technology, the restoration is done at the clinic directly and, the most wonderful thing, done the same day of the appointment.
The restoration is done from 3D impressions of the tooth, sent by computer directly linked to the apparel and manufactured under your eyes. This one is advantageous because it eliminated the mouthing of a temporary tooth, the transport between the laboratory and the clinic (that can cause breakage or other problems) and avoids you to come a second time to the center for the final restoration.
The CEREC technology is durable and has the appearance of a natural tooth. If you wish to know more about this new technology, don’t hesitate to let us know.
Composite filling, more commonly known as white filling, is made of a resin adhering to the tooth and cures with ultraviolet light. A wide choice of colors is available to harmonize with natural teeth. It can be used on anterior and posterior teeth of adults and children for cavity repair or veneer manufacturing.
A composite restoration is a more conservative treatment which reduces the risk of weakening the tooth.
The durability of composite fillings will depend on various factors such as: your eating habits and hygiene, the extent of treatment performed, bruxism (grinding of teeth) and the conditions in which the restoration was made.
A cleaning involves the removal of deposits, like plaque and tartar, from the surface of the teeth and roots.
Plaque is a thin, sticky film of bacteria and food residue. It is one of the leading causes of cavities and gum disease. You can remove plaque while brushing and flossing.
For its part, calculus is the result of the process of calcification of dental plaque. It can occur on the teeth, but also on the roots, where it is not visible, but nevertheless harmful, which can also cause cavities and gum disease. Tartar cannot be removed by brushing alone, only descaling can remove it.
The cleaning is completed by polishing, which aims to smooth out the surfaces of the teeth and remove visible stains on the teeth.
It’s important to see you on a regular basis for the cleaning. This one will help to prevent future problems for gums and bone.
Preventive follow-ups are intended to detect, diagnose and treat dental needs before they become major problems. During these follow-ups, we will be able to offer you an appropriate treatment plan, if necessary. Dental exams also allow us to check if any habits or medical conditions affect your dental health.
During your first visit to our office, we will carry out a complete examination. Dental x-rays are required for exam to ensure that an overall assessment of your oral condition will be performed.
Afterwards, preventive follow-ups will be proposed to you to reassess your dental health. The frequency of follow-ups is based on factors that are unique to you. Your dental and general health, your lifestyle and your dental hygiene at home (brushing and flossing) are all factors that will influence our recommendation on the frequency of your visits. Depending on these factors, control x-rays may be necessary during your preventive follow-ups to establish an accurate diagnosis.
The Centre Dentaire Stéphanie Wilson will be happy to welcome you and each one of your family members. It is important to start early to promote healthy oral habits, which will make it easier to maintain them throughout your life. For your part, it is important to tell us about any changes in your health, your teeth or your gums!
Better safe than sorry!
We provide team-based, comprehensive dental care for children and adults, including patients of all ages who are anxious or have an underlying developmental or medical condition that may add complexity to the management of their oral health.
We are committed to helping you maintain your oral health as an integral part of your overall health and wellness.
You are always the only person responsible for the payment of fees of your dentist.
To make it easier for you, your dentist accept to transmit directly the claims to insurances who offers this program. That doesn’t make him an insurance admistrator so far.
Each private insurance plans has their own proper modalities. The dentist cannot know each one. He doesn’t know how is determined the amount you need to covered for your own fees. He only knows how much you will pay him.
There are the points you will need to know about your insurance plan :
1. What are the covered treatments? 2. What is the renewal date of my coverage? 3. Is there a franchise to pay? 4. Does my coverage has a financial limit? 5. How many often can I be covered for a follow-up appointment and x-rays? 6. How much am I covered for treatments like filling and root canal? 7. What about the other treatments like crown, prostheses and surgery? 8. Can I choose my own dentist? (some plans can restrict your choice to a list of dentists that they approved)
How your dentist cand help you
Your dentist can help you to claim your indemnities.
He can establish a treatment plan, which consists of a personnal plan that you and your dentist develop together to attend your needs in dental health. This plan will help you to reach or maintain your dental health. It should not be fixes by what your plan covers or not. Your plan is build up considering the care that you need which is different from one person to another.
Your dentist can help you to estimate what would be covered by your insurance plan before the treatments by presenting an estimate for the total cost to your dental care insurance administrator. This allow you to obtain a predetermination of your allowances for those treatments. This is not a guarantee, but the risk to having your claim limited or rejected is reduced.
All billed fees are based from the price guide of Association des Chirurgiens-Dentistes du Québec (ACDQ). The prices still the same no matter what are your specific terms of your plan.
To resume, the interpretation of your insurance coverage is not the dentist or even his staff job’s. This is to your insurance administrator job to give you all the informations you need to know before your appointments.
Remind you that your dentist treat you and not your insurance plan’s.
Cessation of profits
This is a payment mode. The patient agreed that the refund of the fees associated to his treatment goes directly to his dentist. In this case, the patient will only need to pay the balance of the fees that are not covered by his insurance. The dentist can accept or decline this agreement.
This situation has several disadvantages for the dental center. In fact, because the center is not the owner of the insurance plan, it is impossible to obtain a guarantee of refund and this refund is carried out with a delay of couple weeks. Also, the communication between the dentist and the insurance are often laborious or inexistent. This payment mode is really far from what a dentist is made for : advice the patient and give him good care.
It’s more often profitable for the patient to take charge of this payment. Insurance companies do the refund most of the time in a delay of 48 to 72 hours direct in your account if you have the direct deposit option. Also, most of patients use their credit card with bonuses and rewards to make the payment and do the refund directly when the receive the payment in their account, so without interest.
Teeth eruptions Primary teeth
Primary teeth are the teeth that form our first dentition. The first teeth usually erupt between 6 and 10 months. There is a total of 20 primary teeth.
Permanent teeth are the teeth that replace the primary ones. They start to erupt towards 6 years old with the loss of the central teeth. The permanent central teeth may erupt behind the primary ones with the primary teeth still in place. Usually, the adult dentition ends at age 13 with the eruption of the second molars. For some, wisdom teeth appear towards the age of 17 to 21. Here is a diagram to help you understand a bit more the sequence of eruption for primary and permanent teeth.
Fluoride is a natural component for enamel. Just like calcium, phosphorus and the other nutrients from water and food, they consist of essential elements to the good formation of bones and teeth.
The constant supply of fluoride in small amounts, directly on the tooth throughout its life, is beneficial. Fluoride help to prevent tooth decay in the following ways:
- By stopping the process of demineralization
- By helping the remineralization of the enamel
- By stopping the progression of cavity and prevent appearance of future cavity.
Professional fluoride application consists of gel, foam or varnishes, applied during a few minutes directly on the teeth. The dental hygienist ensures that each one of the preventative treatments is maximized with the help of specific procedures and recommendations. In dental clinic, we apply fluoride for kids until the age of 14. Fluoride applications may be benefic for all, not just for kids. Here are a few examples of their contribution to dental health:
- Preventing cavities during orthodontic treatment because the brackets retain more plaque.
- Preventing cavities on exposed roots, when gingival recessions are present.
- Decreasing sensitivity; because fluoride helps to seal the tubules of exposed dentin.
We find fluoride naturally in food, water and also in toothpaste. Certain toothpastes have a higher concentration in fluoride, that we recommend for patient with sensitivity or with a higher risk of cavity.
Childhood cavities is a type of cavity that can destroy babies and preschool kid’s teeth. This can be defined as a severe and crawling condition of the primary teeth that starts immediately after the eruption of the teeth.
The term bottle decay was commonly used to describe primary tooth decay for very young children, caused by prolonged use of the bottle at bedtime or during the day. We now use the term "early childhood cavities" has been used to better reflect the multifactorial etiological process of this disease. There’s other factors implicated in early childhood cavities like prolonged and frequent breastfeeding, more than three times a day, cariogenic snacks, pediatric syrups, brushing with a fluoride-free toothpaste and the absence of fluoride in drinking water. It is also recognized that cariogenic bacteria can be transmitted from mother to child by certain behaviors such as tasting the baby’s food using the same spoon or testing the temperature of the pacifier. The mother’s poor oral hygiene is also associated with a higher concentration of microorganisms in the child's mouth.
A child’s first visit at the dentist should be around the age of 3. The dentist will be able to evaluate and discuss the possibilities to treat your child in the best possible way. Until the age of 10, dental examinations, x-rays and some repairs are covered by the Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ).
Pour une question, une consultation ou un rendez-vous, contactez-nous par email, téléphone ou sur place, il nous fera plaisir de vous répondre : email@example.com.